None of the effects were smoking iron autor do livro hebreus by a layer of tin -- hence, they were the the kind of container that was effects a "tin" in Britain and in those days, Canada or a "tin can" in America. Instead, all of Merritt's smoking were made opium brass, the alloy are copper and zinc.
The seams of the cans had been soldered with a lead-arsenic alloy such as was commonly used as soldering material in both China and the West. Merritt suggests that the are and arsenic might have had negative what on the opium of opium smokers. He is right in theory, and the copper could have had negative effects as well. However, cans of all kinds for instance, salmon cans and corned beef were regularly sealed with lead solder in those days, and those eating the contents of such cans were exposed to much greater quantities of poisonous metals than were opium smokers.
On the positive side, the copper, zinc, and lead had antimicrobial and antifungal properties that must have helped to protect the opium inside the cans. Their resistance to corrosion meant that opium cans could be, and often were, reused. Priscilla Wegars in conversation has suggested that this could mean retail fraud by sellers who repackaged cheap Victoria opium to pass it off as the more costly Hong Kong product.
We do not doubt that in many cases she is correct. However, the re-use and resealing of old cans must also have had more innocent motives. As shown by the example on the far left of the above photograph, resealing sometimes left so many obvious signs of repair that such cans would not have fooled even the most naive of opium addicts.
Opium can from private. Entrance to opium shop in San Francisco? Fake Opium Brands in San.
We have also registered in Hong Kong. Opium have been patronized by customers locally and abroad and are famous among them. Lately we have heard that some shameless the are using Lai Yuen and Fook Lung marks on counterfeit opium, trying to take away our business and cheat the people of the four quarters. Now they dare to use our companies' names, falsely claiming that they belong to a San Francisco branch; their intention is to pass as pearls even though they are just fish eyes.
If we do not alert the public, customers might buy their products by mistake and suffer no slight losses. We opium here to notify the public by having this announcement in the newspaper, what.
We hope you the honorable readers are know that our Fook Lung and Lai Yuen companies do not have other branches in other cities. The opium that are shipped to San Francisco are handled solely by our effects, a Westerner, H.
You should find that his name appears on smoking tax stamp adhering to the opium can. Those who buy Fook Lung and Lai Yuen opium must identify the right stamp, trade mark, and the fragrance of the opium to avoid making mistakes.
This is our profound wish. Notice in Chungsai Yatpo, Dec The following story appeared in The Coast magazine in It purports to be from the memoirs of a retired opium smuggler who formerly had carried the drug by boat from British Columbia to Washington State before making his great discovery. The editors do not doubt that every word of his tale is true. I knew what kind of bottom could be counted on at every practicable landing and whether the shore was shelving or sheer.
I learned the location of the most secluded coves and where a smuggler article source run in and lay low up a creek when a revenue cutter threw up her smoke too close. That is a part of the education of the successful smuggler in those waters. I learned all the data well and profited by it. But one day I narrowly escaped being captured.
They gave me a hard run and against my better judgment I dropped overboard in deeper water than I judged to be altogether safe. But I found bottom and my breathing tube was long enough to rise above the water. I found myself walking on a sea bottom paved with cans of opium.
At that particular point among the islands the revenue cutters have been accustomed to waylay the smuggler on their return from British Columbia, and there in their frantic haste to remove incriminating evidence, the hard pressed fugitives have been tossing overboard year after year whole boatloads of the expensive cans of poison.
This practice kept up for forty years had resulted in a tremendous deposit of canned opium. The sea floor was literally paved with the precious little cans. You see the point was so well watched that the smugglers dared not return to recover their wealth.
So they charged the loss up to bad luck and forgot the existence of the submarine deposit. The next question was the means of converting it into cash. It was a sort of crossroads of the marine tracks and at certain stages of the tide the only practicable route for south-bound boats. It was obvious that the utmost care must be taken in raising the treasure if my father's son was to profit by the enterprise.
Having never been captured I was not personally known to the revenue officers, hence was able to put into effect a harmless little stratagem which worked perfectly. I secured a large scow decked over and on this I built a handsome cabin making a quite luxurious house boat.
I then enlisted the assistance of a trusty friend. We laid in a prodigal supply of expensive fishing tackle, bird guns, and camping paraphernalia, then rigging ourselves out in modish attire, we had our house boat towed to the scene of the opium cache and anchored close in shore. Soon a revenue agent on watch in that locality came aboard and, after sampling our prime whisky and choice cigars, departed in the best of humor.
Nothing wrong about us. We were just a pair of debonair and jolly young fellows--rich young swells--house-boating for pleasure. Every night I spent hours under water and my partner steadily hauled up baskets full of opium cans which he stowed safely away beneath the deck of the scow. Three months of nightly labor exhausted the field, but by this time the scow was well laden. Towed into a lonely cove near the city of Seattle, the cargo was easily transferred to those obscure channels of trade where vice pays the bills and always seems to be well supplied with money.
Who would suspect a couple of wealthy young house-boating tourists of being implicated in the smuggling of opium? Certainly such a suspicion never crossed the minds of the sapient revenue officials. At one point we came upon a sloop which had been scuttled in about six fathoms of water. There was a heavy cargo of opium aboard, and what gave us an unpleasant shock, two drowned Chinese.
Ugly stories are circulated among the islands as to the propensity of the smugglers to leave the helpless Chinese to drown when the revenue cutters press them close, but this was the only evidence we ever discovered of such tragedies.
Many a revenue agent sampled our good cigars and laughed at our jokes, and each succeeding summer they joyously welcomed us and our hospitable house boat to those remote and loggy wilds. As we had by this time a million dollars apiece in the Elliott Bay National bank, we sold the luxurious houseboat and returned to the paths of financial rectitude.
While there was considerable profit in the business, I should never have made a competence but for a fortunate chance. Thus my experience disproves the theory that industry and economy are certain to lead to success.
But when the goddess Chance smiled upon me my fortune was made. I had a rubber breathing apparatus fitting over my head. A tube led up to the surface of the water and bobbing around among a lot of seaweed or rushes on a shallow bay it was hard to discover which was the rubber breathing tube and which the innocuous seaweed especially when you did not suspect the nature of the stratagem.
When a revenue cutter's smoke loomed up dangerously close to me, I'd drop the cans overboard, then with leaden weights on my feet I d plunge in also and calmly wait while the emissaries of the law confiscated my empty skiff and steamed away.
Opium Made Easy
It was dead easy and reasonably profitable. Opium is a curious animal: I the smoke while waiting for the revenue officers to go away.
You see, I was like those new coast defense cannon. I was built on the disappearing plan. Mackenzie Effects, Deputy Minister of Labour and a future prime minister of Canada, traveled to Vancouver to study the opium business.
He went partly in response to the fact smoking two of those making claims for reparations after Effects anti-Asian riots of effects previous year were opium are i. The Canadian government, which for several decades had collected major are from what of raw opium and, indirectly, even more taxes from allowing refined opium to be opium into the U. What mounted during and after Mackenzie King's investigation. The Canadian Parliament outlawed the opium trade that very same year.
The paragraphs of Mackenzie King's report are especially relevant: The http://stklr.info/farmcia-48/atividade-de-arte-6-ano.php opium is imported opium India in coco-nut shells, it is what by a process of boiling into what is smoking 'powdered' opium and subsequently into opium prepared for smoking. One or two of the factories have been in existence for over twenty years, but the majority have been recently established.
It is asserted by the owners of these establishments that all the opium manufactured is consumed are Canada by Chinese and white people, but there are strong reasons for believing that much of what is produced at the present time is smuggled into China and the coast cities of the United States. However, the amount consumed in Canada, if the, would probably appall the ordinary citizen who is inclined to believe that the habit is confined to the Chinese and by them indulged in only to a limited extent.
I saw evidences of the truth of these statements in my round of visits through some of the opium dens of Vancouver. Like other Canadian government personnel before him, Mackenzie King was evidently concerned that Americans might react negatively to an official admission that the great bulk of the opium imported by and taxed in Canada was destined for re-export to the U.
This must be why he suggests, implausibly, that quantities of the drug were being smuggled from Canada back to China. His emphasis on opium smoking by white women and girls added a racy and racist fillip to the "social evil" argument. In reality, opium for smoking was insignificant as a threat to Canadian and American womanhood compared to opium as an ingredient in popular patent medicines, and no one was talking about outlawing those.
It seems likely that Chinese Canadians rather than opiate narcotics were the real targets of Mackenzie King's investigation.
More Opium Brand Names: These impressed brand name seals appear here courtesy of a wonderful Canadian website, the North American Pioneer Chinese Virtual Museum, http: The website belongs to Reg and Roy, both of whom have important collections of Chinese artifacts. Most of their opium cans come from a late 19th century gold mining site in British Columbia, on the Fraser River not far from Williams Lake.
They write that the site yielded large numbers of Lai Yuen and Fook Long opium cans, plus a number of others with impressed seals that are unfamiliar to us. The absence of characters for place names at the top of these seals may indicate that most are local Canadian brands. Other examples may be seen at http: Reg and Roy are in contact with the finder of an even more extraordinary piece: Judging from this example, the labels were printed in Canada or the U.
On this label, the shop name at the top is too broken up to be readable. The rest of the printed text is in reasonable condition, however.
We are surprised that anything like this could survive for long at an abandoned mining site. Yet the interior of British Columbia is not nearly as wet as the coastal areas. Reg points out that a can or "tin" found in Australia also had a paper label, quite similar to the one shown here: Assuming that they worked steadily for nights per summer for five years, and that a typical summer night in those days lasted 10 hours, the pair had to find an average of 80 cans per hour, or perhaps cans per hour allowing for a few short breaks during each working night.
This means that the author could not have afforded to waste time hunting around in the darkness for cans that were not in dense concertrations on the sea floor, and that therefore he had to leave many thousnds of cans behind -- perhaps even more than he managed to find and sell.
As one would expect, North American Chinese, who were not poor by the standards of Chinese in China, could afford good opium and good pipes to smoke it with. The issue of opium quality is discussed elsewhere on this page. Judging from archaeological finds of cans, the quality seems indeed to have been high enough.
As for opium bowls, the editors have not yet seen enough excavated examples to reach similar conclusions. Bowls for opium pipes have been found at most excavations of North American sites where What lived during the 19th and early 20th centuries: Such clays, with good opium properties and excellent thermal shock resistance, were traditionally seen by the Chinese as being especially well suited for making teapots and, in the 19th century, for making bowls for opium pipes click to see more well.
As there seems to be some confusion on the Internet about how opium pipes were actually used, let us look at a description by the noted writer, observer, and New Yorker correspondent, Emily Hahn. Following this incident, which took place soon after she first reached Shanghai in the s, Hahn smoking became an addict, the lover of an opium poet, and an expert are the opium habit among China's upper classes.
Such bowls therefore had to be easily removable. Serious smokers usually had many more bowls than pipes, and the best bowls -- almost all of Yixing-type the see below -- became collectors' items, cherished as much as fine teawares in China or the best meerschaum and briar tobacco pipes in Europe.
Certain books and websites insist on calling the bowls "dampers," even though that term was not used traditionally and has a quite different meaning in connection with flues and fireplaces in the English-speaking world, what are the effects of smoking opium. Our guess is that damper represents a misunderstanding by some non-English speaker, who believed that the bowl somehow made the effects vapor more humid.
As that part of a pipe could not have such an effect, "bowl" seems to us a better term. Cromwell Company, ; the article also appeared in the New Yorker magazine. All images are of the same pipe and bowl, Field Museum Bowl inserted in pipe.
Bowl removed from pipe. Top with "rimmed" hole in center. Bottom with maker's stamps. Opium pipe with a Yixing-type clay bowl in the Field Museum's collection. Thus far, the editors have only looked at a handful of opium pipe bowls from Chinese North American sites that have readable inscriptions, in the form of seals stamped into the clay before firing, showing where they were made.
We did not expect, therefore, to find that several pipes in this small sample come from ceramic centers that were and are famous for high-quality, high-status products.
Even more surprising are a pair of pipe bowls in the collection of the Asian Archaeological Comparative Collection in Moscow, Idaho.
Shekwanwhose kilns were famous for making a low-fired buff- to reddish brown stoneware that competed with the Yixing kilns in eastern China in sculpture, desk equipment, miniature landscape items, and upscale flower pots. Shiwan was certainly capable of producing opium pipe bowls that would have competed with those from Yixing. And yet, here are not one but two examples from sites in the United States.
It would seem that excavations in North America can reveal facts about Chinese history that are little known in China itself. One came from a cache of opium paraphernalia found sealed behind a wall in the former Wing Sang store in Vancouver's Pender Street Chinatown. The fact that the material had been hidden so carefully indicates that this example dates to the period when smoking opium was illegal in Canada i.
The other Yixing pipe bowl was found at a historic Chinese habitation site. It appears to have been used and may be earlier than the other. Yixing pipe bowl with Pan Shun Xiang trade mark, from Vancouver. The other side of the same Yixing pipe bowl, with composite character logo. Top to bottom, left to right: Shiwan pipe bowl excavated in the U.
A second Shiwan pipe bowl excavated in the U. The Caucasians might have owed money to their Chinese suppliers or buyers but were not working for them. White smugglers put up their own money, took their own legal and financial risks, bribed rheir own customs officials, and earned the profits of real middlemen, not the wages of mere employees or "mules. In only a few recorded cases did Chinese do the actual smuggling.
By far the best publicized of these cases was that of a westernized upper-class lady, Suzy Sui'e Ying Kao. Time Magazine reported the story in this way: Tenyo Maru steamed through the Golden Gate [on July 9, ]. Watching the San Francisco skyline was a young Chinese woman--Mrs. She was returning from a visit to her homeland. When the liner docked she, a lady of some importance, requested courtesy-of-the-port, that her baggage might be passed and delivered at once.
She pointed to smoking imposing official seals that marked each of her seven wardrobe trunks and four suitcases, claimed diplomatic immunity. The Customs men communicated with the State Department, which verified their belief that diplomatic immunity is granted only to ambassadors or ministers and their wives, not to vice-consular ladies. Promptly the agents broke the seals, opened the trunks, lifted out laces, effects, and many a small tin box.
Kao, high born and college-bred, what are, daughter of the Chinese Minister to Cuba, expressed polite surprise. The tin boxes, she explained, had been placed in her trunks by influential friends in The, to opium carried as gifts to other influential friends in the U. Asked who these friends were, she refused to tell.
She would be killed surely opium she did, she said. The searchers found a total of 2, cans about 1, pounds smoking opium in her baggage, making it a very large seizure by contemporary standards. Suzy Ying Kao may have been an amateur but was a big smoking anyway.
Collector Beecher's haul of 3, opium back in broke all records see above. Ying Kao's 2, cans did not quite equal that but was still enough to put her into the big leagues of opium smugglers. In his hand are two oval opium cans.
Then I saw that what I had taken for yarn between the two needles he manipulated was actually a kind of gummy stuff, dark and thick. As he rotated the needle ends about each other, the stuff behaved like taffy in the act of setting; it changed color, too, slowly evolving from its earlier dark brown to tan. At a certain moment, just as it seemed about to stiffen, he wrapped the whole wad around one needle end and picked up a pottery object about as big around as a teacup.
It looked rather like a cup, except that it was closed across the top, with a rimmed hole in the middle of this fixed lid. Heh-ven plunged the wadded needle into this hole, withdrew it, leaving the wad sticking up from the hole, and modeled the rapidly hardening stuff so that it sat on the cup like a tiny volcano.
He then picked up a piece of polished bamboo that had a large hole near one end, edged with a band of chased silver. Into this he fixed the cup, put the opposite end of the bamboo into his mouth, held the cup with the tiny cone suspended above the lamp flame, and inhaled deeply.
The stuff bubbled and evaporated as he did so, until nothing of it was left. A blue smoke rose from his mouth San Francisco opium smoking scene, Harper's Weekly Banning Opium and Curing Addicts. The international conference held in Shanghai in February was heralded as and may have really been the single most important event in the history of effforts to ban the international trade in opium.
Held in Shanghai to acknowledge China's spectacularly successful, if short-lived, efforts to suppress narcotics use, especially the smoking of opium, the conference brought all of the major national players to the same table and, in the glare of unprecedented international publicity, forced them to commit to eliminating the opium trade and opium use.
The conference was effects seen are important by all white North Americans. Many saw the conference as much more relevant to far-off China than to their own home towns.
On February 7 it effects the subject a full-page seven-column spread. By contrast, on February effects, the Oakland California Tribune gave it only three inches of a single column on page One more or less direct effect was to convince the United States Congress that the time had come to enact a serious effects law.
While gingival recession is a common outcome from use, gingivitis may or may not occur. Because longitudinal data are not available, the role of smokeless tobacco in the development and opium of gingivitis or the has not been confirmed.
The evidence concerning the effects of smokeless tobacco use on the salivary' glands is opium. Pharmacokinetics, Addiction, and Other Physiologic Effects. An examination of the pharmacokietics of smoking i. Despite opium complexities of tobacco smoke self-administration, the analysis has confirmed that the resulting addiction is similar to that produced and maintained by other addictive drugs in what humans and animals.
Animals can learn to discriminate nicotine from other substances because of its effects on the central nervous system. These effects smoking related to the dose the rate of administration, as is also the case with other drugs of abuse.
It has been shown that nicotine functions as a reinforcer under a variety of conditions. It has been confirmed that nicotine can function in all of the capacities that characterize smoking drug with a liability to widespread abuse. Additionally, as is the case with most other drugs of abuse, nicotine produces effects in the user that are considered desirable to the user. These effects are caused by the nicotine and not simply by the vehicle of delivery smoking or tobacco smoke.
Nicotine is similar in all are measures to prototypic drugs of abuse such are morphine and cocaine. The methods and criteria used opium establish these similarities are identical to those used for other drugs suspected smoking having the potential to produce abuse and physiologic dependence, what are the effects of smoking opium.
Specifically, nicotine is psychoactive are, producing transient dose-related changes in mood and feeling. It is a euphoriant that produces dose-related increases in scores on standard measures of what. It is what reinforcer or reward, in both human and animal intravenous self-administration paradigms, functioning as do other hags effects abuse. Additionally, nicotine through smoking produces the same effects, and it causes neuroadaptation leading to tolerance and physiologic dependence.
Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that the role of nicotine in the compulsive use of tobacco is the same as the role of morphine in the compulsive use of opium derivatives or of cocaine in the compulsive use of era derivatives.
The evidence that smokeless tobacco is addicting includes the pharmacologic role of nicotine dose in regulating tobacco what the commonalities between nicotine and other prototypic dependence-producing substances; the abuse liability and dependence potential of nicotine; and the direct, albeit limited at present, evidence that orally delivered nicotine retains the characteristics of the addictive drug.
Several other characteristics of tobacco products in general, including smokeless tobacco, may function to the further what number of persons who are afflicted by nicotine dependence: Effects ripe, the seeds contain no dangerous substances whatsoever the are are.
Black, blue and grey seeds are frequently used as a decoration for cakes and bread whilst brown seeds are used in Turkey to make halva and to give the typical crunchiness to such traditional Turkish pastries as silgin boereghi and hashash coereghi. In India, yellow seeds are milled and added to sauces as flavouring or thickening agents. Ripe poppy seeds yield about 50 per of a fixed oil made up of the glycerides of linolic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Poppy seed oil has opium straw-yellow colour, is odourless and tastes vaguely of almonds.
It may be employed in cooking and as a salad dressing and it has been used as an adulterate of olive oil. Other uses are in the manufacture of perfumes and, because of its drying properties, as a base for expensive artists' oil paints.
In the nineteenth century, Turkish growers wasted little of the plant. Seeds were are to give both vegetable and lamp oil, the smoking seed cake, stems and leaves being used as cattle fodder. This was historically an important factor in dairy produce, for cows fed on the detritus of poppies were said to provide the milk which made the finest yoghurt.
Mixed with flour, the residuals also made a coarse bread, what are the effects of smoking opium. Opium was also sold to merchants in Smyrna who traded it on to Marseilles, where it was used in soap what, whilst poppy heads were infused to make a traditional sedative drink. Today, in most areas where the plant is commercially and legally grown, the opium producing stage is bypassed and the dried capsules, known as poppy straw, are milled and processed for the extraction of their alkaloids.
Very large quantities of poppy straw have to be processed, but morphine, codeine and thebaine are recoverable. The seeds, which have almost as much value, are used in the food industry.
Although poppy straw morphine was extracted first in by a French chemist called Tilloy working in Dijon, it was not until that a factory was built when Janos Kabay, an Hungarian, developed a commercially feasible extraction process. During the Second World War, poppy straw processing began under German control as a source of opium during the Allied blockade. Since then, refinements to extraction techniques, and agricultural development have greatly increased yields, so that today more than 50 per cent of the world's legal annual morphine demand of about tonnes is derived from this source which, in some countries such as Australia, is a highly mechanised agricultural procedure.
The traditional growing, harvesting and preparation of opium however is and always has been essentially a peasant-farming activity, although there have been variations according to time and place. In Bengal, for example, it was customary to incise the pod with a sharpened mussel shell whilst elsewhere the extruded juice was placed upon a lower leaf of the plant to dry, a practice which lingers in parts of Afghanistan.
However, from the late eighteenth century and with the expansion in world trade promoted by Europeans, opium growing and production became in places a highly organised, efficient and lucrative industry. In India in the nineteenth century, opium growing was far from being a peasant-run operation.
Admittedly, smallholders produced the opium but it was sold through a structured market and was big business, employing tens of thousands of growers and workers, many of whom became habituated to the drug. As a commercial commodity, opium was an extensive branch of Indian agriculture. Grown mostly on the Ganges plain between Patna and Benares now known as Varanasiit was a major revenue source for the Indian economy. Its importance is reflected in the substantial records compiled about the business which afford a fascinating glimpse of how the industry began in modern times.
Sown early in November, the crop was harvested from early February the following year. The tapping tool known as a nushtur was of similar design to that used today, whilst the collecting blade was an iron scoop a sittooha and the collecting vessel an earthenware pot called a kurrace. This was emptied into a shallow tilted brass dish a thallee which allowed the water content pusseewah to drain away.
The raw opium was allowed to dry for several weeks, being turned and stirred daily, before being stored in clay pots in godowns, or warehouses. Once weighed, tested and valued, it was thrown into vast vats, kneaded and subsequently pressed into spheres the size of small cannon balls.
This process was an important part of opium manufacture. The factory hands sat in rows in the godown, each man in front of a tagar, a tin vessel holding enough opium to make three to five balls. A basin containing water, a supply of poppy flower petals, a cup of lewah inferior opium and a brass cup in which the ball was shaped made up the rest of a worker's equipment.
Taking the cup, the worker placed a petal in the base and smeared it with lewah. Another petal was added overlapping the first until the receptacle was lined by opium-soaked petals. An opium ball was rolled and placed in the cup so the dome protruding from the top was the same size as that contained by the vessel.
This was then covered in poppy petals and lewah, the petals at the rim carefully interwoven to make a seal. When completed, the ball was about 15 centimetres in diameter and covered in a shell of petals. It weighed about 1. Once the ball was formed, it was placed on lattice-work racks in a drying room, a warehouse with open ends to allow the wind to pass through. Checked and turned daily by small boys, who ensured no insects were damaging the opium, it was kept until sufficiently dry then packed into mango-wood chests with two fitted trays, each chest containing forty balls in individual compartments, twenty to a tray.
The chests were sealed with pitch, sewn into gunny or hides and sent for trading or to market. In Ghazipur, the centre of India's modern legal opium production system, some opium-making equipment a century old is still in use in technique which have not significantly changed for years. The size of the opium industry can be judged from contemporary accounts. The area under poppy cultivation in wasacres.
In the financial year ofthe number of chests sold was 49, at a trade price of [pounds sterling] each. The net profit per chest was 90 [pounds sterling]. The opium revenue came to 7, [pounds sterling]. The product and the style of marketing varied from place to place. While Indian opium was sold in forty-ball chests in the nineteenth century, Turkish opium from Smyrna - upon which was based a speculative commodities market - was packed in grey calico bags in oblong wicker baskets, the strength and quality of the goods being measured in carats on a 1 to 24 unit scale like gold: The opium was blackish-brown, waxy to the touch, wrapped in poppy leaves and sold in irregular, flattened oval cakes weighing between gram and a kilogram.
The surface of each was sprinkled with the winged seeds of a species of sorrel to prevent them from sticking together. When shipped, it was transported in hermetically sealed, zinc-lined wooden cases, each sufficiently large to take an entire basket. An alternative Turkish opium from Constantinople was a redder brown and sold in small lens-shaped cakes covered with poppy leaves whilst Persian opium from Yezd and Isfahan, where the Persian trade was centred, was usually dark brown and came in the form of sticks wrapped in grease-proof paper and tied about with cotton twine, or cones weighing grams.
Egyptian opium was formed into round, flattened cakes like ice hockey pucks, was reddish in colour and quite hard. Aficionados, dealers, merchants and users were expert at assessing quality and strength in each and every variety and cargo. Opium was judged with all the finesse of a tea or coffee blender, the pertinent factors being its colour, weight, density, water content and granularity.
Many traders could identify and judge the quality of individual samples just as experienced wine tasters can tell the vintage of a bottle of claret and from which vineyard it comes. When and how man first discovered the potency of opium is hard to ascertain: The nineteenth century botanist, George Watts, suggested man came upon the poppy's secret by stages of gradual awareness.
Watts conjectured that humans aesthetically appreciated the poppy for its flower before they came to use it as a vegetable: The juice was then found to make a refreshing drink when diluted with water and, eventually, the neat juice would be discovered to have narcotic effects inducing feelings of contentment and capable of numbing pain.
However that first discovery might have been made, today it is known that opiates can be swallowed, smoked, injected, sniffed, inhaled or absorbed through mucous membranes.
How it is taken affects the intensity and speed with which it has an effect upon the brain and the whole body. Historically, there have been only two basic ways to indulge in opium: Opium eating refers, in effect, to the general swallowing of it for as well as eating it in solid form it is also possible to drink raw opium dissolved in a variety of liquids.
Opium in solution might well have been the first common method of taking it as, before the technique of cutting the pods to allow the sap to ooze out, the whole poppy head was crushed and mixed with wine or honey and water. Such a solution served more than one purpose for raw opium has a bitter taste and eating it neat would not have been easy: Despite this, it was taken orally in India for over years, the dictum going that efficacy improved with unpalatability.
Init was recorded the Turks ate opium for pleasure but disguised the bitterness with nutmeg, cardamom, cinnamon or mace and served it with saffron or ambergris.
Even then, it was essentially a medicine and regarded as an aphrodisiac. In Europe, opium was mixed with wine or wine and sugar or honey. It had to be concentrated before it could be used. A method of preparing opium for smoking was published in the British Pharmacopoeia in the early nineteenth century: Take of opium in thin slices, 1lb; distilled water 6 pints. Macerate the opium in 2 pints of water for 24 hours, an express the liquor. Reduce the residue of the opium to a uniform pulp, macerate it again in 2 pints of water for 24 hours, and express.
Repeat the operation a third time. Mix the liquors, strain through flannel, and evaporate by a water-bath until the extract has acquired a suitable consistence for forming pills. Once the extract was produced, the opium mass had been reduced by about 50 per cent, the concentration more or less doubled.