The University of Maryland claims 29 editions of Summa were published between and in Latin, and it is held by 55 libraries worldwide. Refer to the following guide for the Latin and corresponding English for each edition 666 Summa.
The Latin spelling varies slightly depending on abbreviations used. Access document online at Gallica. Francisci de Cinquinis, Rome. Universidad de Granada Has full document download, pages 666 Has full document download, 666, 76 Mb. Johannes Quastena renowned Catholic patristics scholar, 616, considered perhaps the greatest authority in this field, when questioned in about Vicarius Filii Dei, freely admitted in writing that "The title Vicarius Filii Dei as well as the title Vicarius Christi is very common as the title for the Pope.
Quasten was indeed aware of the title appearing in Summa, and in Leo IX's letter, thus his concession that it is very common. Secunda ratio accipitur ex parte Papae. Sententia www servidor br tabela_remuneracao Papae et sententia 666 vna sententia est: Cum igitur appellatio semper fiat a minori iudice ad superiorem, sicut nullus est major seipso: Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum.
Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum, sicut nulla potest intrare ad consistorium Dei, nisi 616 Papa, qui est aeternae vitae c ó nsistorij clauiger, et ostiarius et sicut nullus pot appellare ad se ipsum: Second 666 considering 666 role of the Pope. Only the Pope is said to be the Vicar of God: The decision of the Pope and the 666 of God constitute one decision, just as the decision of the Pope and his disciple are the same.
Since, therefore, an appeal is always taken from an inferior 616 to a superior, link no one is greater than himself, so no appeal holds when made from the Pope to God, because there is one consistory of the Pope himself and of God Himself, of which consistory the Pope himself is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper.
Therefore no one can appeal 666 the Pope to God, 666, as no one can enter into the consistory of God without the mediation 616 the Pope, 666 is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper of the consistory of eternal life; and as no one can appeal to himself, so no one can appeal from the Pope to God, because there is one decision and one court of God, and the Pope. De Exhibitione Honoris Papae. Displaying honor to the Pope. Utrum honor, qui debetur Christo secundum quod Deus, debeatur Papae.
Whether the honor due Christ as God is due the Pope. Ad Primum sic proceditur. Videtur enim, quod honor, qui debetur Christo secundum, quod Deus debeatur Papae. Quia honor debetur potestati: So proceeding on the first point. It is to be seen as fact that the honor that is due Christ as God is due also to the Pope: Satan's policy in this final conflict with God's people is the same that he employed in the opening of the great controversy in heaven.
He professed to be seeking to promote the stability of the divine government, while secretly bending every effort to secure its overthrow. And the very work which he was thus endeavoring to accomplish he charged upon the loyal angels.
The same policy of deception has marked the history of the Roman Church. It has professed to act as the vicegerent of Heaven, while seeking to exalt itself above God and to change His law. Great Controversy Dies Sabbati, in Diem Dominicam iure à Papa mutata est, propter significatorum preeminentiam, factorum excellentiam, temporumque convenientiam.
The Sabbath day law has been changed by the Pope to the Lord's day, due to the preeminence of things signified, and the excellent factors in agreement with time and circumstance.
So, the same document that applies Vicarius Filii Dei to the Pope, credits the papacy with changing God's Commandment from the seventh-day Sabbath to the first day of the week, Sunday!
The full Third Commandment pages Question 50 from the edition of Summa: Augustinus Triumphus is also described as "a major canon lawyer of the 13th century, and a simply rabid defender of extreme papal supremacy. Here is some additional information regarding him:.
Est enim ipse papa Dei Filii vicarius. It is so vast that even he himself cannot know fully what he is able to do. Their tribunals are one. See Poole, sq. See Schwab, Gerson, p. The Christian Emperor Constantine testified, saying: From this it follows self-evidently that Peter can be called the supreme head of the universal Church according to the way that holy Scripture explains it, as the ruler of a multitude is said to be the head.
H oc ille imperator Christianissimus Constantinus aliquando testatus est dicens: Beatus Petrus videbatur in terris vicarius Dei filii constitutus. Ex hoc etiam sequitur evidenter, quod Petrus caput universalis Ecclesiae potest dici juxta morem illum sacrae Scripturae, quo rector alicujus multitudinis dicitur esse caput. It appears that the blessed Peter was appointed as the vicarius Filii Dei on earth. From this it follows self-evidently that Peter can be called the head of the universal Church according to the way that holy Scripture explains it.
Beatus Petrus videtur in terris vicarius Dei filii constitutus. Ex hoc etiam sequitur evidenter, quod Petrus caput universalis Ecclesiae potest dici juxta morem illum sacrae Scripturae. Item, diffinimus sanctam Apostolicam sedem et Romanum Pontificem in universum orbem tenere primatum, et ipsum Pontificem Romanum successorem esse beati Petri principis Apostolorum et verum Christi vicarium totiusque Ecclesiae caput et omnium christianorum patrem ac doctorem exsistere; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi ac gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Iesu Christo plenam potestatem traditam esse; quemadmodum etiam in gestis oecumenicorum Conciliorum et in sacris Canonibus continetur.
We likewise define that the holy Apostolic See, and the Roman Pontiff, hold the primacy throughout the entire world; and that the Roman Pontiff himself is the successor of blessed Peter, the chief of the Apostles, and the true vicar of Christ, and that he is the head of the entire Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians; and that full power was given to him in blessed Peter by Our Lord Jesus Christ, to feed, rule, and govern the universal Church; just as is contained in the acts of the ecumenical Councils and in the sacred canons.
Second Latin source, The Council of Florencesee pgs. Decree of the council of Florence against the synod at Basel Decretum concilii Florentini contra synodum Basiliensem.
Pourquoi le chiffre 666 représente-t-il le diable ?
Sic et nos quibus, licet immeritis, 666, Dominus noster Jesus Christus 666 suum committere dignatus est, audientes illud execrabile scelus, quod quidam perditi homines Basileae commorantes ad scindendam 616 Ecclesiae unitatem proximis diebus machinati fuerunt: Similarly we too to whom, though unworthy, the lord Jesus Christ has deigned to entrust his people, as we hear of the abominable crime that certain wicked men dwelling in Basel have go here in these days so as to breach the unity 616 holy church, and since we fear that they may seduce some of the unwary by their deceits and inject them with their poisons, 616, are forced to proclaim in like words to the people of our lord Jesus Christ 666 to us, depart 666 the tents of these wicked men, particularly since the Christian people is far more numerous than the Jewish people of those days, the church is holier than the synagogue, and the vicar of Christ is superior in authority and status even to Moses.
Execrabilis, et pristinis temporibus inauditus tempestate nostra inolevit abusus, ut a Romano Pontifice, Jesu Christi Vicario, cui dictum est in persona Beati Petri "Pasce oves meas," et "Quodcumque ligaveris super terram, erit ligatum et in caelis," nonnulli spiritu rebellionis imbuti, non sanioris cupiditate judicii, commissi evasione peccati, ad futurum Concilium provocare praesumant, quod quantum sacris canonibus adversetur, quantumque Reipublicae Christianae noxium sit, quisquis non ignarus jurium intelligere potest.
An execrable, and in former ages unheard-of abuse, has sprung up in our time, namely that some people, imbued with the spirit of rebellion, presume to appeal to a future Council, from the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Jesus Christ, to whom it was said in the person of blessed Peter: In in Venice, Alphonsus Alvarez Guerrero, a Spanish civil and canon lawyer noted for his expertise bene peritus in antiquities of the church, and advisor to King Philip II of Spain in Naples Italy, published his Thesaurus Christianae Religiones Treasure store of the Christian Religiona detailed exposition of the powers, rights and duties of Christian authorities, civil and spiritual.
He twice applied the title Vicarius Filii Dei to the Pope, asserting the authority of the Pope over the Holy Roman Emperor Imperator Romanoruma title granted by the Pope, at his discretion, to the German kings via a formal ceremonial crowning. Based on that papal sanctioned transfer of power to the Germans, Pope Innocent III in claimed continuing authority to examine, anoint, consecrate and crown each German king as he saw fit, in the bull Venerabilem fratrem nostrum Our brother worthy of respect.
Tart Cherry Extract 616 mg
The text of 666 bull in Latin. Et post Deum Imperator Apostolicus hoc approbat, ut in ca. After God's Chief Apostle has given his approbation, References to the 666 Venerabilem.
Cum hoc tamen semper potestas confirmandi fuit apud Dominum papam, qui est vicarius filii Dei: With this notwithstanding, the power of confirmation has always been accorded to the Lord pope, who is the Vicar of the Son 666 God: Thesaurus was also printed in in Florence, and in Koln pgs. Guerrero became president of the supreme court in Naplesa priest, and was appointed Bishop of Monopoli by 666 II. Et si non potest Papa disponere, nec dispensare contra legem Dei, 616, veteris, et noui Testamenti, licet sit Christi, Omnipotentis Dei filii Vicarius, iuxta illud: Tu es Petrus, 616.
Minus potest Imperator dispensare contra Testamentum vetus, ac novum, Thou art Peter, etc. The Emperor is less able to dispense contrary to the Old Testament, and New Title 22, chapter 5, section 16 deals with the Donation of Constantine and quotes it, to include Vicarius Filii Dei, on the page numbered Then in section 22 on pagethe title is applied to the pope as follows:.
Et quantum ad primum, cum papa sit vicarius filii Dei, sicut quod Deus fecit mediantibus creaturis tanquam mediantibus causis secundis, totus potus facere immediate per seipsum, ita papa saltem quantum ad potestatem jurisdictionis. Sicut omnes fideles regit mediantibus ecclesiae ministris, ita potest immediate per seipsum regere. And as much as to the first, since the pope is vicar of the Son of God, as that God made the creatures as if by means of the mediation of secondary causes, the whole he could do directly by himself, so the pope has at least as much power of jurisdiction.
Similarly, he can govern directly all the faithful, or by means of the ministers of the Church. The beginning of section 16 refers to question 43 Ad 3 of Aug. Augustinus Triumphus' Summa de potestate ecclesiasticawhich also cites the Donation see above. The first known association of Vicarius Filii Dei with appeared in Quaestionis anne certum aliquod Antichristi nomen extet, cui numerus ille apocalypticum exacte congruentesque insit; apodictica tractatio Investigating proof that a name of Antichrist exists that exactly corresponds to the apocalyptic number ; incontrovertibly handledauthore Carolo Aglaeonio Irenochoraeo believed to be a pseudonym for Andreas Helwig [or Helwich] the rector of BerlinDavidi Chytraeo dedicata, Gryphosylae.
Original in the Staatsbibliothek Zu Berlin.
B Mohr, Tubingen,pgs. Helwig takes Vicarius Filii Dei as an expansion or equivalent 666 the officially used shorter papal title Vicarius Christiand shows that it conforms to these four requirements, citing Sleidanus in his Commentariis Suis Historicislib. Original online at the Staatsbibliothek Zu 666. For first, it is a Latin name, and most exactly renders with significant letters that Apocalyptic number; then it harmonizes wholly and always with the 616 order in itself even though by hypothesis [ex hypothesi]as no pontiff denies; then it is not offensive or vile 666 imposed upon him by adversaries, but is especially honorable to this very one, venerable, and formidable to others: This [is] what, among other things for who may investigate all the swelling words of papal bulls?
Seefor more quotes of Helwig. Andream Helvigium, Rectorem Gymnasii Stralsund. Helwig's association of Vicarius Filii Dei with and the role that title has played in history is documented and discussed in depth over pages in: That's years from Pope Leo IX's letter to the first public revelation in that the 666 equaledyears that Vicarius Filii Dei would not have been denied as applying to the Pope by anyone in the Roman Catholic Church, and even so, 666 continued to appear in Catholic canon law and other Catholic publications for additional centuries.
In the Chapel of St. In the fresco panels, shown above, Emperor Constantine is offering his crown to the Pope, illustrating the Donation of Constantine, and in the following panel, 666, the triumphal 666 riding on horseback and wearing Constantine's tiara, is led through Rome by the humbled Emperor, who is on foot.
Another painting representing 666 Donation of Constantine666, shown belowis in the Vatican, in the Sala di Costantino. It was painted by 666 and his workshop from toalong with 616 of Constantine's baptism, his vision of the 666, and his victory at the battle at Milvian bridge, so at the time it would seem the Donation of Constantine was still 666 to be genuine. The kneeling Constantine is handing Pope Sylvester I a statuette of Roma Aeterna eternal Rome symbolizing the transfer of power from the emperor to the 666.
On February 23,about four years before the Raphael's painting of the Donation was completed, Martin Luther, in a letter to Spalatin, wrote:. I have at hand Lorenzo Valla's proof that the Donation of Constantine is a forgery.
Good heavens, what darkness and wickedness is at Rome. You wonder at the judgment of God that such unauthentic, crass, 616, imprudent lies not only lived, but prevailed for so many centuries, that they were incorporated in the canon law I am in 666 a passion that I scarcely doubt that the pope is the Antichrist expected by the world, so closely do their acts, lives, sayings, and laws agree. All these excessive, over-presumptuous, and most wicked claims of the Pope are the invention of the devil, with the object of bringing in antichrist in due course and of raising the Pope above God, as indeed many have done and are now doing.
It is not meet that the Pope should exalt himself above temporal authority, except in spiritual matters, such as preaching and absolution; in 666 matters he 666 be subject to reforco negativo exemplos, according to the teaching of St.
Peter I 666 iii. He is not the vicar of Christ in 666, but only of Christ upon earth. For Christ in heaven, 666, in the form of a ruler, requires no vicar, but there sits, sees, does, knows, and commands all things. But He requires him "in the form of a servant" to represent Him as He walked 666 earth, working, preaching, suffering, 616 dying.
But they reverse this: He should 666 be called the counter-Christ, whom the Scriptures 616 antichrist; for his whole 666, work, 666, and proceedings are directed against Christ, to ruin and destroy the existence and will of Christ.
616 is also absurd and puerile for filosofia antiga medieval moderna e contemporanea Pope to boast for such blind, foolish reasons, in his decretal Pastoralis, that he is the rightful heir to the empire, if the throne be vacant.
Who gave it to him? Did Christ do so when He said, "The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, but ye shall not do so" Luke xxii. Peter bequeath it to him? It disgusts me that 666 have to read and teach such impudent, clumsy, foolish lies in the canon law, and, moreover, to take them for Christian doctrine, while trabalho assalariado capital resumo reality they are mere devilish lies.
Of this kind also is the unheard-of lie touching the "donation of Constantine. How could preaching, prayer, study, and the care of the poor consist with the government of the empire? These are the true offices of the Pope, which Christ imposed with such insistence that He forbade them to take either coat or scrip Matt, 616 ou 666. Yet the Pope wishes to rule an empire and to remain a pope.
This is the invention of the knaves that would fain become lords of the world in the Pope's name, 616 set up again the old 616 empire, as it was formerly, by means of the Pope and name of Christ, in its former condition. Mater DEI impetravit in coelis: Vicarius Filii DEI ratificavit in terris. Signum Salutis, 666 in Periculis: Wearers of the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, known also as the brown scapular, 666 promised to be quickly freed from the flames of purgatory, at 666 by the Saturday after their death.
Sic mihi flexis genibus supplicanti Virgo visa fuit Carmelita, 616, sequentem éffata sèrmonem:. Hail, Queen of Mercy 616 our hope: So, as I prayed with bended knees, the Virgin of Carmel seemed to speak to me these words:. So, it behooveth thee to grant a favor and confirmation to my holy and devout Order of Carmel, which took its rise with Elias and Eliseus on the mountain of that name. Whoso maketh profession, whoso observeth the Rule drawn up by my servant Albert the Patriarch, whoso unfailing shows obedience thereunto and to 616 which has been approved by my dear son Innocent, so that thou mayest accept through the true Vicars of My Son on earth what My Son hath ordained in Heaven: Istam ergo sanctam Indulgentiam accepto, roboro et in terris 666, sicut, propter merita Virginis Matris, gratiose Jesus Christus concessit in coelis.
This holy indulgence I therefore accept; I confirm and ratify it on earth, just as Jesus Christ has graciously granted it in heaven on account of the merits of the Virgin Mother. See The Sabbatine Privilege. Sicut licet credamus quod Papa succedit S. Petrus, ex Leone IX. Jesuits; a L'Enfeigne de S. Fransois Xavier,pg. Est Vicarius Filij Dei sicut Petrus, ex eodem.
Florentino in literis vnion. Extra vnam sanctam de maior. Est caput Religionis ex Nicol. Concilio, vel fine eo, sufficienter proponit toti mundo obiecta fidei. He is the Vicar of the Son of God, as was Peter:. Consequently, since the Apostles, with or without a Council, he adequately sets forth the articles of faith for the entire world.
The Pope or Roman Pontiff, his dignity, sanctity and majesty. Papa eft Vicarius Filii Dei, sicut Petrus. Etiamsi mores S Petri non habeat. Even if he does not have the character of Saint Peter. We — together with all our satraps, and the whole senate and my nobles, and also all the people subject to the government of glorious Rome — considered it advisable, that as the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on the earth, so the Pontiffs who are the representatives of that same chief of the apostles, should obtain from us and our empire the power of a supremacy greater than the clemency of our earthly imperial serenity is seen to have conceded to it, choosing that same chief of the apostles and his vicars to be our constant intercessors with God.
This author lists Vicarius Filii Dei and vicarii Dei with forms of vicarius Christi as functional equivalents. Annales de Philosophie ChrétienneDe M. Bonnetty, Tome 5, Paris,p. In the end, Innocent II was declared the valid pope by St. Ad magnam, quam S. Bernardus habuit in Ecclesia, auctoritatem cognoscendam sciendum est, Honorio Papa e vivas sublato, pro Successoris electione suffragia mirum in modum abiisse in diversa. Tune visa sunt super idem corpus duo capita, super eumdem thronum duo Principes, super eosdem subditos duo Domini; in eodem ovili Pastores duo; alter subreptitius, alter legitimus; ille usurpator, hic verus Filii Dei Vicarius.
As to great authority which Saint Bernard had in the Church, and the knowledge of it should be noted, when Pope Honorius died, the votes in the election of a successor had in an amazing way gone two different directions.
Then there was to be seen on the same body two heads, upon the same throne two Princes over the same subjects of the Lord; in the same fold two Shepherds; one surreptitious, the other legitimate; there a usurper, here the true Vicar of the Son of God. Named for Pope Sixtus V who commissioned its construction, the Salone Sistino or Apostolic Library is on the top floor of the building that s the north end of the Cortile del Belvedere from east to west, connecting the Belvedere and the Vatican Palace.
Richly decorated by Giovani Guerra, Cesare Nebbia, and assistants, there are several frescoes of note. On the east end of the grand hall, there is a fresco of the First Nicean Council of A. Beneath the fresco is the inscription:.
In the fresco, Bishop Hosius of Cordoba is presiding and is seated at top center. He is flanked by Pope Sylvester's legates, Victor and Vincentius. The crowned emperor Constantine, who convened the council, is seated in the left center foreground, and Christ and God the Father are seated in a cloud at top left.
At the opposite, or west end of the Salone Sistino, is another set of 3 related frescoes on the center pilaster between the arched doorways. On the left side of the pilaster Christ's right hand is a Pope standing with triple cross and tiara, with the inscription:. The center fresco depicts Christ seated. The fresco on the right side of the pilaster Christ's left hand depicts an Emperor standing, with crown, sword, and blue mantle. Vatican Library Newsletter n.
The Sistine hall suffered severe damage December 22,when central support columns and a large portion of the roof totally collapsed and plunged through two floors, but it was completely rebuilt and restored. Inand later editions, the book Apocalyptical Key. The fresco of a Pope on the pilaster between the Vatican Library and the Salone Sistino, while admittedly not having the exact wording, and on a pilaster rather than over the door, is the closest known example that may be the inscription referred to in this and other books.
Lucius Ferraris, aboutwrote an elaborate multi-volume theological reference work or encyclopedia titled Prompta Bibliotheca in which he quoted the Donation of Constantine, including the phrase Vicarius Filii Dei, in article 2 of the entry "Papa" Pope. He cited the revised canon law as his authority. Below is part of column from volume 5 of Prompta BibliothecaParis editionwhere the title of Vicarius Filii Dei appears in 20 of article 2 of the entry "Papa" Popewhich I have indicated with an arrow.
Again, this is a quote from the Donation of Constantine:. Ferraris' work was later revised, enlarged, and once again published in Rome by the Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide in In that edition, the document and papal title Vicarius Filii Dei were still retained. According the Catholic Encyclopediaa further revised edition of Prompta Bibliotheca was published in Rome by the presses of the Vatican's Office of Propaganda in Quis est Petrus seu qualis Petri Primatus?: Catéchisme de PersévéranceL'Abbe J.
The spirit of Protestant England? We have need, then, to be upon our guard. It shall happen once more with some, as it did when the Son of God was in His Passion? Where, then, is our faith? But the Son of God foretold these things when He said, "And now I have told you, before it come to pass; that when it shall come to pass, you may believe. Lastly, the only other point upon which I shall speak to is this.
We have already seen how the powers and glories of the Holy See have been progressively unfolding; how the time of St. Now I observe these powers of the Holy See have been always rising, always culminating. The temporal power in the hand of St. In the hands of St. In the hands of Alexander III. And now in these later times the temporal sovereignty has become a law of the conscience, an axiom of the reason. Through long contests and denials it has passed into consciences, intellects, and hearts of men.
Like the great dogmas of the Church, through controversy it has reached its analysis and expression. It stands by the side of the Immaculate Conception a theological certainty, if not a definition.
So that I may say there never was a time when the temporal power of the Vicar of the Son of Godthough assailed as we see it, was more firmly rooted through. For the nations of Europe have already seen that the society of the world, without the guidance and preservation of the Church of God, resolves itself into confusion.
They have seen every form of political society, and the confederations of kingdoms and nations, dissolve and pass away. While all the floating societies of the world have drifted down the stream, the centre of obedience has become more stable. Men have learned from the history of modern Europe that the law which is called the law of nations—that is, the rule of justice which regulates the relations of people with people—has become weak and powerless.
Because the nations have broken the bonds which bound them to the centre of obedience, and have shaken off the noble submission to a tribunal higher than man, from which came forth, in other days, the judgments of equity and of justice. It was a dignified obedience to bow to the Vicar of the Son of Godand to remit the arbitration of their griefs to one whom all wills consented to obey. For what is the temporal power, but the condition of peaceful independence and supreme direction over all Christians, and all Christian so- [p.
When the Civil powers became Christian, faith and obedience restrained them from casting so much as a shadow of human sovereignty over the Vicar of the Son of God. They who attempt it now will do it at their peril. The Donation of Constantine is quoted in columnpart of which is shown below. The phrase "vicarius filii dei" is found near the center of the paragraph.
La traduction de la Bible du Semeur [ 7 ] donne pour les versets C'est ici qu'il faut de la sagesse. Que celui qui a de l'intelligence déchiffre le nombre de la bête. Ce nombre représente le nom d'un homme [ 8 ]c'est: Le nombre est écrit de différentes façons suivant les manuscrits. Un fragment provenant du site Oxyrhynchus donne, par exemple, une version différente: Il n'y a que deux occurrences de ce nombre dans les textes de l' Ancien Testament:.
Dans l' isopséphie grecque et la guématria hébraïque, chaque lettre a une valeur numérique suivant son rang dans l'alphabet, et le chiffre d'un nom est le total de ses lettres [ 13 ]. De nombreux calculs, toujours aléatoires, ont été faits à partir de ce chiffre pour tenter d'en découvrir le sens [ 14 ]proposant plusieurs identifications de la Bête. Néanmoins, il semble que ce soit bien le pouvoir impérial que le rédacteur du texte met en cause.
Jean le visionnaire traite de cet affrontement en reprenant la forme du livre de Daniel et présente une première bête polymorphe — reprenant l'intégralité du bestiaire présenté par Daniel — qui monte de la mer et représente le pouvoir impérial dans le cadre de la fin de l'histoire.
Dans ce cadre, le suicide de Néron est clairement évoqué quand la bête a la gorge coupée [ 16 ]. L'évocation de l'empereur est renforcée par le nombre qui révèle, suivant la guématrie en hébreu [ 17 ] ou l'isopséphisme en grec, le nom de César-Néron, dans un nombre qui, par opposition au chiffre 7 qui symbolise la perfection, symbolise l'imperfection suprême [ 18 ].
La seconde bête qui vient bientôt agir pour le compte de la première symbolise l'entourage de Néron, peut-être, ainsi que le propose Marie-Françoise Baslezun astrologue de Néron, Tibérius Claudius Balbillius, qui a possiblement été en contact avec des chrétiens à Rome et qui peut incarner le faux prophète et le thaumaturge qu'évoque le texte [ 19 ].
L'auteur de l'Apocalypse évoque bel et bien Néron — qui ne doit pas être réduit à l'image d'histrion véhiculé par sa légende romaine — dont le retour, suivant les oracles sibyllins évoquant un Néron redivivusest annonciateur de la guerre eschatologique qui précède l'établissement de la paix universelle [ 20 ]. La plupart des spécialistes s'accordent sur ce point [ 21 ][ 22 ][ 23 ][ 24 ][ 25 ][ 26 ]. On a remarqué en outre que d'autres noms ou titres de l'empereur avaient cette valeur en grec: Suétoneau chapitre 39 de sa Vie de Néron [ 28 ]rappelle précisément qu'il était l'objet de nombreuses moqueries, où l'on retrouve dans un cas au moins, le procédé isopséphique:.
Une autre théorie suppose un lien avec l'empereur Dioclétien Diocles Augustus en latinen ne prenant en compte que les lettres latines ayant valeur de chiffre: Lors des guerres de religioncatholiques et protestants utilisèrent le nombre de la Bête, les uns comme les autres, pour s'accuser mutuellement d'incarner l' Antéchrist. Irónicamente, Lucano también sobrino de Sénecael antiguo preceptor de Nerón participó en la conspiración de Pisón y fue consecuentemente ejecutado.
Aunque en general habla mal de Nerón, reconoce su popularidad en la parte oriental del imperio. La historia de Nerón por Plinio el Viejo 24 - 79 no ha sobrevivido.
Plinio es por tanto uno de los historiadores que peor opinión tiene acerca de Nerón. Cayo Plinio Cecilio Segundo 62 -conocido como Plinio el Jovenfue un abogado, escritor y científico de la antigua Roma. Plinio el Joven, al igual que su tío Plinio el Viejo, tiene una visión totalmente negativa sobre Nerón:.
El historiador Plutarco 46 - menciona indirectamente a Nerón en sus relatos sobre las vidas de Galba y Otón. No es de extrañar que Séneca el Joven 4 - 65en su condición de tutor y asesor del emperador, describa a Nerón como un buen emperador. Las partes de su biografía sobre Nerón que han sobrevivido son abiertamente hostiles, y aunque el gobierno de Nerón puede racionalizar tal hostilidad, algunos historiadores modernos cuestionan la exactitud de su obra.
Por ejemplo, la siguiente cita, que se ha tomado tradicionalmente como una señal de locura del emperador, podría ser simplemente propaganda. El pueblo romano llegó a decir cierta vez, que hubieran corrido mejor suerte si la esposa de Domicio Ahenobarbo hubiese sido así.
616 El historiador describe el gobierno de la Dinastía Julia-Claudia como mediocre en general. A pesar de todo, 666 que los escritos sobre el emperador son subjetivos. Las biografías de AugustoTiberioCalígula y Nerón fueron falsificadas por medio del terror durante su reinado, y tras su muerte se escribieron bajo el resentimiento de la tiranía, 616. A finales de 66estalló un conflicto entre los griegos y judíos de Jerusalén y Cesarea. Todas las flechas cayeron sobre la ciudad.
A continuación, pidió a un niño que pasaba 666 recitara un verso que había aprendido ese día: Nerón quedó aterrorizado, comprendiendo que Dios quería que el Templo de Jerusalén fuera destruido, pero que luego lo castigaría por ello.
Nerón 666 precipitadamente a Roma y se convirtió al judaísmo para evitar ese castigo. Vespasiano fue el go here enviado para sofocar la rebelión. La tradición cristiana ve a Nerón como el primer perseguidor de los cristianos y como el asesino de Pedro y Pablo.
También existe la creencia de que Nerón es 666 Anticristo. En una de sus obras dice: Por cuanto se sabe hasta ahora, el primer texto que sugiere que Nerón asesinó 666 un apóstol es el escrito apócrifo del siglo II Ascensión de Isaías. Lo retrata como un matricida y un perseguidor de la fe cristiana.
Tanto es así que uno de los doce apóstoles moriría en sus manos. El obispo Eusebio de Cesarea - escribió que Pablo fue decapitado en Roma durante el reinado de Nerón. Varios escritos contradicen a Eusebio diciendo que sobrevivió a su estancia en Roma y viajó a Hispania.
El escrito apócrifo Hechos de Pedroes el primer relato que habla sobre la crucifixión boca abajo de Pedro. Un grupo de escritores del siglo IV indican que Pedro y Pablo fueron asesinados por órdenes de Nerón. La Ascensión de Isaías es el primer texto que sugiere que Nerón es el Anticristo. EnLactancio escribió que Nerón desapareció del lugar donde había sido enterrado y que nunca se le había vuelto a ver.
EnAgustín de Hipona escribió sobre su teoría de que Pablo mencionó la venida del Anticristo. Algunos estudiosos modernos defienden que el es en realidad un código relativo al emperador. Cuando se suman en hebreo las letras del nombre de Nerón el resultado es ytomando las dos variantes del nombre Nero y Nerón.
El concepto de Nerón como el Anticristo es la creencia central sobre la que gira la escatología del preterismo. Entre estas obras cabe destacar la novela Quo Vadisde Henryk Sienkiewiczdonde es el antagonista principal.
Quo Vadis ha sido a su vez adaptada en diversas ocasiones para distintos medios, como el cine y la televisión. En esta película, el papel de Nerón es interpretado por el actor Peter Ustinov. Otros actores que han interpretado a Nerón en el cine han sido Charles Laughton en la película de El signo de la cruzdirigida por Cecil B. Nerón aparece también como personaje secundario en la serie de televisión Yo, Claudiobasada en las novelas de Robert Graves Yo, Claudio y Claudio, el dios, y su esposa Mesalinadonde es interpretado por Christopher Biggins.
También aparece como el mayor villano en la secuela de Percy Jackson "Las pruebas de Apolo" en las cuales es un integrante de "Triunvirato Holdings" que durante siglos han acumulado muchas riquezas y ahora planea apoderarse del mundo junto con otros dos emperadores-dioses que consiguieron la divinidad, es conocido como él padrasto de Meg McCaffrey. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Para otros usos de este término, véase Nerón desambiguación.
Gran incendio de Roma. Se establece el 9 de junio como la fecha de la muerte del emperador partiendo de la obra de Jerónimo de Estridón Crónicas. Henderson, Life and Principate of the Emperor Nerop. Harvard University Press, pp. Griffin, Nerónp. VarnerThe Art Bulletin September Fitzmyer, y Roland E.